C++ vs. Lisp

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At several points in my career development, I've been prompted to take a look at alternative computer languages. Usually I was worried about other languages being better than the one I was using at the time.
Sometimes my worrying has been justified. Being introduced to Pascal in college made me forever unsatisfied with my unstructured BASIC skills from high school, for example. But once I'd started programming in C++ on my job, I've never been seriously tempted to switch once I thoroughly investigated the alternatives.
That's why I was intrigued when I ran across Peter Norvig's web page talking about Lisp as an Alternative to Java. He mentioned a study in which 38 C, C++ and Java programmers were asked to write versions of a program to compare Java and C++ efficiency. Norvig had written the program in Lisp in 2 hours, while the times for the C++ developers ranged from 3 to 25 hours.
After I read that, I knew I had to try the problem.

The Challenge

I spent a little over an hour jotting down some notes from the problem statement, wrote some pseudocode and then jumped in. I was disappointed when I finished almost eight coding hours later after making some late-night debugging and logic blunders. I figured if I hadn't stayed up so late trying to finish it, I might have made it in six hours. Most of my mistakes came from not understanding the problem thoroughly.
However, I wasn't complaining too much. I was still under the median time (~11 hours) for the rest of the C++ programmers in the study. My LOC for the program was below the median for the other C++ coders as well: 220 non-comment non-blank lines for my code vs. ~275 lines for the others. I believe one of the main reasons my program was shorter than average was that I took advantage of the C++ Standard Template Library (STL), which for some curious reason was avoided by all the other coders in the study.
However, what still bothered me was that Norvig's Lisp version was so much shorter: 45 lines vs. my 220 lines. It made me so curious that I had to figure out why. I hadn't looked at Norvig's code at all before since I didn't want to gain any ideas from it, but now I studied it in earnest. I dug out my old copy of Paul Graham'sANSI Common Lisp and began to decipher Norvig's program. Once I understood the logic, I decided to code it in C++ myself to prove that there was nothing special about Lisp. I believed that an equivalent C++ program could be written in the same number of lines, if I simply took Norvig's approach.
After 3 hours, I finished my Lisp to C++ port of Norvig's code using Visual Studio .NET. (I used VS.NET because it provided STL hash table functionality, and Norvig was making use of CL's built-in hash table implementation in his program.) Converting the code took longer than I expected – I was simply unable to translate the program line-for-line. I had cut my program's size in half (142 lines), but even with my changes, I still wasn't able to get close to 45 lines.

Style differences

I wasn't sure of all the reasons I couldn't match the conciseness of Lisp in C++, but I could intuitively see some differences in the coding styles. One major difference seemed to be that Lisp could combine more on one line than my C++ code.
Consider the following statements from my code:
cout << num << ":";
for (list<string>::const_iterator i = words.begin(); i != words.end(); ++i)
    cout << *i;
cout << "\n";
These lines are used to print out the alphanumeric encoding for a specific phone number. The encoding is stored as individual words/digits in a list variable called 'words'. In this code, the 'words' list is reversed (since it was originally stored in reverse order) and the original phone number is printed, followed by the space-separated 'words' list.
To do the same thing in Norvig’s code took only one line:
(format t "~a:~ {  ~a}~%" num (reverse words))
This particular example showcases one of Lisp's strengths: functional programming. Almost every operation performed in Lisp returns values instead of modifying variables. [1]  Keeping with our above example of reversing a list, calling (reverse words) in Lisp would return a new reversed list while leaving the original list untouched. So in the Lisp code, reverse immediately hands off its new list to format, which then prints it.
In contrast, C++ modifies the existing list in-place when words.reverse() is called and returns void.  This means that the cout statement which prints the list to the console has to be on a separate line, because there is no return value from the function that is printable. Characteristically then, C++ normally consists of one or two distinct operations per line because many functions or algorithms directly modify the variables that are passed to them.
Also, notice that I had to print out the list explicitly -- cout doesn't know how to print an STL list by default, a rather egregious fault in my book. (However, we can solve this with C++ operator overloading, a fairly advanced skill.)

Operating on Pointers

I also found other stylistic differences between Lisp and C++.  Here is another sample line from Norvig's program ...
(loop for word in (gethash n *dict*) do
... and a particularly ugly line from my code ...
for (HashMap::iterator i = gDict.equal_range(n).begin(); i != gDict.equal_range(n).end(); i++)
(notice that hash_multimap has been typedef'd to make things less wordy!)
Both the Lisp and the C++ versions perform the same operations (looking up 0 or more values from a hash map by key), but the Lisp version is obviously less wordy and, I believe, more understandable.
The Lisp code is more concise here because the loop is operating on words contained in the hash map. Instead of words, the C++ code is returning STL iterators, which are object-oriented versions of pointers. The iterators need dereferenced to obtain the words, which isn't a significant problem. However, look at the loop structure itself and how many keywords are devoted to dealing with iterators (iterator, begin, end ) which have nothing to do with the actual task -- looping over words in the hash map.
I believe most of the complexity of the STL arises from its explicit use of iterators. 99% of the time you want to iterate over the entire container in a loop, and in searches you're interested in the value itself, not the pointer to the value. Iterators simply provide no benefit in these circumstances. My conclusion from extensive use of the STL is that iterators are mostly useless and should be abstracted away everywhere possible.
Also, there’s an additional side effect that results from iterator use. I prefer the style of the C++ loop as above, but as it stands, it is not optimized. The end iterator really should be calculated outside of the for loop so that it is not recalculated on each pass. In addition, the iterator should be incremented using prefix notation (++i) instead of postfix (i++) to avoid inefficiences resulting from temporary objects as well.[2] These kinds of considerations are typical of the low-level idioms that a C++ developer must keep in mind when writing their code. It is also these kinds of aspects that a Lisp developer is shielded from with Lisp's higher-level constructs. [3]

Making Life Simpler

One other lesson that can be learned from Lisp is that it is well suited to bottom-up programming. That is, in the words of Paul Graham,

Instead of just writing a program in Lisp, you can write your program on Lisp, and write your program in that.[3]

Graham goes on to say that he believes that Lisp is the language most naturally suited for bottom-up programming, even though other languages can be written in this style as well.
I will definitely say that after six years of C++ programming, I have tended to stay with what the language and library have given me. C++ tends to keep you focused on small details, rather than think in terms of building up the language to suit the problem. Freedom from this mindset is one of the most revolutionary things Lisp has to offer. With the poweful alternative Lisp was providing, the real question for me was whether to leave C++ and embrace Lisp, or to try to bring the idea of bottom-up programming to my own language.
I wish I could say that Lisp was clearly the right choice for me, because the powerful constructs of the language and the unified high-level syntax have intellectual appeal. The difficulty for me is writing Lisp in practice. Dealing with parentheses placement and prefix notation simply get in the way of my thought process.
I probably would still struggle through writing Lisp code if it wasn't for the fact that the STL is so powerful. Lisp's lists are flexible and can be used to represent everything from arrays to linked lists to queues, but all those containers are already built into STL.

A Better STL

I decided to stick with C++ and try to make it better. But how? My first thought was to get rid of iterators. I decided to rewrite all of the STL's algorithms to accept containers instead of iterators. But more importantly, I decided to also make the algorithms (where possible) return copies of containers instead of iterators as well. This would enable the functional programming that makes Lisp code so succinct.
Secondly, I would attempt to build another layer of utility functions on top of the STL to perform common tasks such as tokenizing strings, looking up values in containers, reading from files ... I decided to take a page from both Lisp and Python in the types of high-level functions to include.
It soon became clear I was writing my own library, and one that I hoped would be useful outside of a small coding contest. However, my criteria for success would be whether I could make a C++ program with my library as small as Norvig's code ... and just as readable.
The results are located on my software page. The library I named EasySTL; my new revised program is located here. The new line count is 79 lines. However, to be on par with Norvig's Lisp code, the #include and using statements for the STL headers and the separate lines for curly braces should not be counted (since this is simply a style issue between C++ and Lisp). With these provisions on the counting, the revised C++ code comes in at 48 lines.

So What Does It Prove?

I was able to match the functionality of Lisp in C++ for a small sample problem. Not very scientific, I suppose, but it tells me C++ isn't all that bad. Maybe the STL is slightly low-level, but with a little effort, it can be brought up to the level of a language like Lisp in important areas.
Of course, Lisp has a lot of other things going for it, like automatic garbage collection (which makes functional programming much more efficient), macros (like C++ templates on steroids) and lambda functions. But then C++ has its own strengths: extensive library support, solid tools, and of course, its premier status as a programming language for Windows.

However, this little contest does prove one thing to me: C++ needs to be simpler out of the box. The recent popularity of Java and C# have proven this. Fewer and fewer people will continue to trade programmer productivity for processor cycles. 

The C++ standards committee has begun meetings to decide the next C++0x standard. It's time to decide: what kind of language does the community need? One that is simpler and more high-level, or one that is increasingly complex and verbose?

I think it's clear that Lisp has lessons in productivity and succinctness that are worth pursuing.

[1]ANSI Common Lisp by Paul Graham, pp. 22-23.
[2] Exceptional C++ by Herb Sutter: Item 6, "Temporary Objects"

[3] For more on this topic, see Todd Proebsting's comments on "Language Design: C vs. Lisp" in his presentationDisruptive Programming Language Technologies.

[4]On Lisp by Paul Graham, vi.

1 TrackBack

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Well, is it a good idea to make C++ less primitive? After all, if you want higher level, go for something explicitly for that, like LISP, or Python/Perl/Ruby, or even Java/C#. C/C++ is for low-level system programming! Why damaging their powers there?

Just curious why you didn't take advantage of more STL, for example, your reversed wordlist output could be simplified to a single line:

copy(words.rbegin(), words.rend(), ostream_iterator(cout));

I wouldn't be surprised if there were more of these ways of simplifying your code by taking advantage of more advanced stl (and/or boost).

Interesting, but none of your 'userpages' links seem to be working.

You should compare the length of the code using Boost to using your homegrown C++ library.

Your article text gets smaller and smaller. Is that intentional?

Common Lisp is not more concise because it's functional and doesn't mutate state. CL isn't functional and it is often idiomatic to mutate state (unlike Clojure which enforces controls over mutation). The key is that every form returns a value (which can be a reference). In Lisp there are no statements, only expressions. Hence a lisp form can mutate something in place and return a reference to it which can be used in another expression giving very dense and expressive code.

The parenthesis matching thing goes automatically if you have a good editor. Go to Google Video and search for Marco Baringer, especially the Uncommon Web video and the Slime video, they give a feeling of why Lisp users are so in love with their language…

I note you write "need dereferenced" -- is that part of the midwestern US dialect? I knew someone who very adamantly insisted that "to be" was completely useless after "need" :-)

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This page contains a single entry by ebhakt published on May 1, 2010 4:22 PM.

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